Over 25% of fatal road accidents in the Netherlands take place on provincial roads although together these roads account for only 6% of the total Dutch road network. Provincial roads are generally well managed and maintained but the combination of a high speed limit (80 km/h) and the profiles of these roads means that a great many of them are not suited to handling large traffic flows safely. In the ANWB study, use was made of the EuroRAP method. Most of the provincial roads (55%) scored 2 stars and 7% scored 1 star, mainly because they did not satisfy the minimum road design requirements and dimensions for safe roads. The width of lanes and hard strips, hard shoulders and edges is often the minimum. In many cases, there is a lack of physical separation of traffic travelling in opposing directions or the separation is not sufficiently wide, roadside structures are inadequately shielded and the situation at intersections is unsafe. An indicative calculation with EuroRAP shows that with an investment of approximately 1.14 billion euros over 20 years it would be possible to raise the safety level of Dutch provincial roads to the three-star level. This translates into 135,000 euros per kilometre. In this regard, a strong emphasis lies on measures that can have a significant impact on road safety at a relatively low cost. By upgrading roads, the number of people involved in very serious accidents can be reduced by 9,022 over 20 years. The total benefits of the measures (including reduced medical expenses and the costs arising from of disability) are calculated at over 2.9 billion euros.